The followig data are currently available:

Name Type Comment Unit Data Source
abundance_crust float Abundance in the Earth’s crust mg/kg [22]
abundance_sea float Abundance in the seas mg/L [22]
annotation str Annotations regarding the data    
atomic_number int Atomic number    
atomic_radius float Atomic radius pm  
atomic_radius_rahm float Atomic radius by Rahm et al. pm [38]
atomic_volume float Atomic volume cm3/mol  
atomic_weight float Atomic weight   [31][55]
atomic_weight_uncertainty float Atomic weight uncertainty   [31][55]
block int Block in periodic table    
boiling_point float Boiling temperature K  
c6 float C_6 dispersion coefficient in a.u. a.u. [14][48]
c6_gb float C_6 dispersion coefficient in a.u. (Gould & Bučko) a.u. [21]
cas str Chemical Abstracts Serice identifier    
covalent_radius_bragg float Covalent radius by Bragg pm [11]
covalent_radius_cordero float Covalent radius by Cerdero et al. pm [17]
covalent_radius_pyykko float Single bond covalent radius by Pyykko et al. pm [36]
covalent_radius_pyykko_double float Double bond covalent radius by Pyykko et al. pm [35]
covalent_radius_pyykko_triple float Triple bond covalent radius by Pyykko et al. pm [37]
covalent_radius_slater float Covalent radius by Slater pm [45]
cpk_color str Element color in CPK convention HEX [52]
density float Density at 295K g/cm3  
description str Short description of the element    
dipole_polarizability float Dipole polarizability a.u. [58]
discoverers str The discoverers of the element    
discovery_location str The location where the element was discovered    
dipole_year int The year the element was discovered    
electron_affinity float Electron affinity eV [22][7]
electrons int Number of electrons    
en_allen float Allen’s scale of electronegativity eV [27][28]
en_ghosh float Ghosh’s scale of electronegativity   [19]
en_mulliken float Mulliken’s scale of electronegativity eV [32]
en_pauling float Pauling’s scale of electronegativity   [22]
econf str Ground state electron configuration    
evaporation_heat float Evaporation heat kJ/mol  
fusion_heat float Fusion heat kJ/mol  
gas_basicity float Gas basicity kJ/mol [22]
geochemical_class str Geochemical classification   [50]
goldschmidt_class str Goldschmidt classification   [50][51]
group int Group in periodic table    
heat_of_formation float Heat of formation kJ/mol [22]
ionenergy tuple Ionization energies eV [23]
ionic_radii list Ionic and crystal radii in pm pm [44]
is_monoisotopic bool Is the element monoisotopic    
is_radioactive bool Is the element radioactive    
isotopes list Isotopes    
jmol_color str Element color in Jmol convention HEX [56]
lattice_constant float Lattice constant Angstrom  
lattice_structure str Lattice structure code    
mass_number int Mass number (most abundant isotope)    
melting_point float Melting temperature K  
metallic_radius float Single-bond metallic radius pm [1]
metallic_radius_c12 float Metallic radius with 12 nearest neighbors pm [1]
molcas_gv_color str Element color in MOCAS GV convention HEX [57]
name str Name in English    
name_origin str Origin of the name    
neutrons int Number of neutrons (most abundant isotope)    
oxistates list Oxidation states    
period int Period in periodic table    
proton_affinity float Proton affinity kJ/mol [22]
protons int Number of protons    
sconst float Nuclear charge screening constants   [15][16]
series int Index to chemical series    
sources str Sources of the element    
specific_heat float Specific heat @ 20 C J/(g mol)  
symbol str Chemical symbol    
thermal_conductivity float Thermal conductivity @25 C W/(m K)  
uses str Applications of the element    
vdw_radius float Van der Waals radius pm [22]
vdw_radius_alvarez float Van der Waals radius according to Alvarez pm [6][49]
vdw_radius_batsanov float Van der Waals radius according to Batsanov pm [9]
vdw_radius_bondi float Van der Waals radius according to Bondi pm [10]
vdw_radius_dreiding float Van der Waals radius from the DREIDING FF pm [30]
vdw_radius_mm3 float Van der Waals radius from the MM3 FF pm [4]
vdw_radius_rt float Van der Waals radius according to Rowland and Taylor pm [40]
vdw_radius_truhlar float Van der Waals radius according to Truhlar pm [29]
vdw_radius_uff float Van der Waals radius from the UFF pm [39]


Name Type Comment Unit Data Source
abundance float Relative Abundance   [54]
g_factor float Nuclear g-factor   [47]
half_life float Half life of the isotope   [31]
half_life_unit str Unit in which the half life is given   [31]
is_radioactive bool Is the isotope radioactive   [53]
mass float Atomic mass Da [53]
mass_number int Mass number of the isotope   [53]
mass_uncertainty float Uncertainty of the atomic mass   [53]
spin float Nuclear spin quantum number    
quadrupole_moment float Nuclear electric quadrupole moment b [100 fm^2] [46]

Some notes on the data

Atomic Weights

Atomic weights and their uncertainties were retrieved mainly from ref. [55]. For elements whose values were given as ranges the conventional atomic weights from Table 3 in ref. [31] were taken. For radioactive elements the standard approach was adopted where the weight is taken as the mass number of the most stable isotope. The data was obtained from CIAAW page on radioactive elements. In cases where two isotopes were specified the one with the smaller standard deviation was chosen. In case of Tc and Pm relative weights of their isotopes were used, for Tc isotope 98, and for Pm isotope 145 were taken from CIAAW.

Covalent Radii

In order to have a more homogeneous data for covalent radii taken from ref. [17] the values for 3 different valences for C, also the low and high spin values for Mn, Fe Co, were respectively averaged.

Allen’s configuration energies

The values of configurational energies from refs. [27] and [28] were taken as reported in eV without converting to Pauling units.

Electron affinity

Electron affinities were taken from [22] for the elements for which the data was available. For He, Be, N, Ar and Xe affinities were taken from [7] where they were specified for metastable ions and therefore the values are negative.


  • Electron affinity of niobium was taken from [26].
  • Electron affinity of cobalt was taken from [12].
  • Electron affinity of lead was taken from [13].

Isotopes g-factors and quadrupole moments

The data regarding g-factors and electric quadrupole moments was parsed from easyspin webpage (accessed 25.01.2017) where additional notes are mentioned:

  • Typo for Rh-103: Moment is factor of 10 too large
  • 237Np, 239Pu, 243Am magnetic moment data from [22], section 11-2
  • In quadrupole moment data - a typo for Ac-227: sign should be +

Nuclear charge screening constants

The screening constants were calculated according to the following formula

\[\sigma_{n,l,m} = Z - n\cdot\zeta_{n,l,m}\]

where \(n\) is the principal quantum number, \(Z\) is the atomic number, \(\sigma_{n,l,m}\) is the screening constant, \(\zeta_{n,l,m}\) is the optimized exponent from [15][16].

For elements Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd and Ag the exponent values corresponding to the ground state electronic configuration were taken (entries with superscript a in Table II in [16]).

For elements La, Pr, Nd and Pm two exponent were reported for 4f shell denoted 4f and 4f’ in [16]. The value corresponding to 4f were used since according to the authors these are the dominant ones.

Sanderson electronegativity

The values of Sanderson’s electronegativity are taken from from as revised values from Table 3.1 in ref. [43]. The electronegativities for noble gases are taken from [3].

van der Waals radii according to Alvarez

The bulk of the radii data was taken from Ref. [6], but the radii for noble gasses were update according to the values in Ref. [49].


Since electronegativity is useful concept rather than a physical observable, several scales of electronegativity exist and some of them are available in mendeleev. Depending on the definition of a particular scale the values are either stored directly or recomputed on demand with appropriate formulas. The following scales are stored:

Moreover there are electronegativity scales that can be computed from their respective definition and the atomic properties available in mendeleev:

For a short overview on electronegativity see this presentation.

All the examples shown below are for Silicon:

>>> from mendeleev import element
>>> Si = element('Si')


The electronegativity scale proposed by Allen in ref [2] can be defined as:

\[\chi_{A} = \frac{\sum_{x} n_{x}\varepsilon_{x}}{\sum_{x}n_{x}}\]

where: \(\varepsilon_{x}\) is the multiplet-averaged one-electron energy of the subshell \(x\) and \(n_{x}\) is the number of electrons in subshell \(x\) and the summation runs over the valence shell.

The values that are tabulated were obtained from refs. [27] and [28].


>>> Si.en_allen
>>> Si.electronegativity('allen')

Allred and Rochow

The scale of Allred and Rochow [5] introduces the electronegativity as the electrostatic force exerted on the electron by the nuclear charge:

\[\chi_{AR} = \frac{e^{2}Z_{\text{eff}}}{r^{2}} \notag\]

where: \(Z_{\text{eff}}\) is the effective nuclear charge and \(r\) is the covalent radius.


>>> Si.electronegativity('allred-rochow')

Cottrell and Sutton

The scale proposed by Cottrell and Sutton [18] is derived from the equation:

\[\chi_{CS} = \sqrt{\frac{Z_{\text{eff}}}{r}}\]

where: \(Z_{\text{eff}}\) is the effective nuclear charge and \(r\) is the covalent radius.


>>> Si.electronegativity('cottrell-sutton')


Ghosh [19] presented a scale of electronegativity based on the absolute radii of atoms computed as

\[\chi_{GH} = a \cdot (1/R) + b\]

where: \(R\) is the absolute atomic radius and \(a\) and \(b\) are empirical parameters.


>>> Si.en_ghosh


Gordy’s scale [20] is based on the potential that measures the work necessary to achieve the charge separation, according to:

\[\chi_{G} = \frac{eZ_{\text{eff}}}{r}\]

where: \(Z_{\text{eff}}\) is the effective nuclear charge and \(r\) is the covalent radius.


>>> Si.electronegativity('gordy')

Li and Xue

Li and Xue [24][25] proposed a scale that takes into account different valence states and coordination environment of atoms and is calculated according to the following formula:

\[\chi_{LX} = \frac{n^{*}\sqrt{I_{j}/Ry}}{r}\]

where: \(n^{*}\) is the effective principal quantum number, \(I_{j}\) is the j‘th ionization energy in eV, \(Ry\) is the Rydberg constant in eV and \(r\) is either the crystal radius or ionic radius.


>>> Si.en_li_xue(charge=4)
{u'IV': 13.16033405547733, u'VI': 9.748395596649873}
>>> Si.electronegativity('li-xue', charge=4)
{u'IV': 13.16033405547733, u'VI': 9.748395596649873}

Martynov and Batsanov

Martynov and Batsanov [8] used the square root of the averaged valence ionization energy as a measure of electronegativity:

\[\chi_{MB} = \sqrt{\frac{1}{n_{v}}\sum^{n_{v}}_{k=1} I_{k}}\]

where: \(n_{v}\) is the number of valence electrons and \(I_{k}\) is the \(k\) th ionization potential.


>>> Si.en_martynov_batsanov()
>>> Si.electronegativity(scale='martynov-batsanov')


Mulliken scale [32] is defined as the arithmetic average of the ionization potential (\(IP\)) and the electron affinity (\(EA\)):

\[\chi_{M} = \frac{IP + EA}{2}\]


>>> Si.en_mulliken()
>>> Si.electronegativity('mulliken')


Nagle [33] derived his scale from the atomic dipole polarizability:

\[\chi_{N} = \sqrt[3]{\frac{n}{\alpha}} \notag\]


>>> Si.electronegativity('nagle')


Pauling’s thermochemical scale was introduced in [34] as a relative scale based on electronegativity differences:

\[\chi_{A} - \chi_{B} = \sqrt{E_{d}(AB) - \frac{1}{2}\left[E_{d}(AA) + E_{d}(BB)\right] }\]

where: \(E_{d}(XY)\) is the bond dissociation energy of a diatomic \(XY\). The values available in mendeleev are taken from ref. [22].


>>> Si.en_pauling
>>> Si.electronegativity('pauling')


Sanderson [41][42] established his scale of electronegativity based on the stability ratio:

\[\chi_{S} = \frac{\rho}{\rho_{\text{ng}}}\]

where: \(\rho\) is the average electron density \(\rho=\frac{Z}{4\pi r^{3}/3}\), and \(\rho_{\text{ng}}\) is the average electron density of a hypothetical noble gas atom with charge \(Z\).


>>> Si.en_sanderson()
>>> Si.electronegativity()


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